Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. 

Quick facts

Population: 25,230,470 (estimated by ABS January 2019)

Area: 7,692,024 km2

Capital: Canberra

Internet TLD (top level domain): .au

Currency: dollar ; symbol: AU$

Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia (France) to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.

Flag_of_Australia_(converted).svg

The flag of Australia consists of a dark blue background, the Union Jack and the Southern Cross star constellation

Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century. It is documented that Aborigines spoke languages that can be classified into about 250 groups.

 After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. 

The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. 


Geographic location of Australia. image: wikipedia


On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. 

The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population of 23.1 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated in the eastern states.

Australia is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy.

With the second-highest human development index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights. 

International Memberships 

Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum.

States of Australia

Australia has six states—

  • New South Wales (NSW), 
  • Queensland (QLD), 
  • South Australia (SA), 
  • Tasmania (TAS), 
  • Victoria (VIC) and 
  • Western Australia (WA)—and 


two major mainland territories—

  • the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and 
  • the Northern Territory (NT). 


In most respects these two territories function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation overrides state legislation only in areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including those over schools, state police, the state judiciary, roads, public transport and local government, since these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 51.

The federal parliament directly administers the following territories:

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  • Australian Antarctic Territory
  • Christmas Island
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Coral Sea Islands
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  • Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales
  • Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been granted more autonomy and is governed locally by its own legislative assembly. The Queen is represented by an Administrator.


sourcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia