Earth sciences

Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It can be considered a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. 

A diagram showing the various parts of study of the Earth, including the atmosphere layers. image: wikimedia

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. 

Typically, earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.


Some typical earth science areas include:

One of the main practical concerns reasons for studying of earth sciences is the study of natural hazards or natural disasters. In addition to environmental conditions and exploitation of natural resources.