El niño

In earth sciences and meteorology, El Niño (pronounced as El Ninyo) is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that periodically develops off the Pacific coast of South America. 

Extreme climate change pattern oscillations fluctuate weather across the Pacific Ocean which results in fluctuating droughts, floods, and crop yields in varying regions of the world.

1200px-1997_El_Nino_TOPEX

The 1997 El Niño observed by TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The white areas off the tropical coasts of South and North America indicate the pool of warm water. image: wikipedia/NASA


There is a phase of 'El Niño–Southern Oscillation' (ENSO), which refers to variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño and La Niña) and in air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific. 

The two variations are coupled: the warm oceanic phase, El Niño, accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific, while the cold phase, La Niña, accompanies low air surface pressure in the western Pacific. Mechanisms that cause the oscillation remain under study.

Developing countries dependent upon agriculture and fishing, particularly those bordering the Pacific Ocean, are the most affected. 

El niño is Spanish for "the boy", and the capitalized term El Niño refers to the Christ child, Jesus, because periodic warming in the Pacific near South America is usually noticed around Christmas.



Effects in Australia/ SE Asia include:

Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, and decreasing air quality dramatically. 

Drier-than-normal conditions are also in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, and eastern Tasmania from June to August.

sourcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El_Niño&oldid=607104942