Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description") is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth.
A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).
Four historical traditions in geographical research are:
- spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution),
- area studies (places and regions, countries),
- study of the man-land relationship, and
- research in the Earth sciences.