Microscopes (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") are instruments used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.

There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe. 

Different types of microscopes. TEM- Transmission Electron Microscope, SEM scanning and various types of SPM-Scanning probe microscopes. image: FDominec /wikipedia


The main parts of a 90s  class room microscope. 

  • Eyepiece (ocular lens) (1)
  • Objective turret, revolver, or revolving nose piece (to hold multiple objective lenses) (2)
  • Objective lenses (3)
  • Focus knobs (to move the stage)
  • Coarse adjustment (4)
  • Fine adjustment (5)
  • Stage (to hold the specimen) (6)
  • Light source (a light or a mirror) (7)
  • Diaphragm and condenser (8)
  • Mechanical stage (9)

The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image. 

Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope, the electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the various types of scanning probe microscopes.

Source adapted from: Wikipedia contributors. (2019, January 17). Microscope. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:54, January 21, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Microscope&oldid=878920884