Minerals are naturally occurring chemical compounds usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A particular mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.


A rock crystal of quartz is a classic example of a mineral. Image: wikimedia/Didier Descouens


Most minerals found in the Earth’s crust are of two broad types: Silicates and Non-Silicates

  • Silicates
    • Tectosilicates
    • Phyllosilicates
    • Inosilicates
    • Cyclosilicates
    • Sorosilicates
    • Orthosilicates
  • Non-silicates
    • Native elements
    • Oxide minerals
    • Halide minerals
    • Sulphate minerals
    • Phosphate minerals
    • Organic minerals

Source adapted from: Wikipedia contributors. (2018, April 20). Mineral. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 05:01, June 19, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mineral&oldid=837454207