The cytoplasm comprises cytosol – the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane – and the organelles/inclusions – the cell's internal sub-structures. 

All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. 

Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colourless. 

Components of a typical animal cell:

The faint blue/grey shading represents the cytoplasm

1.Nucleolus, 2. Nucleus 3. Ribosome (the dots)4. Vesicle 5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum 6. Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi body") 7. Cytoskeleton 8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 9. Mitochondrion 10. Vacuole 11. Cytosol 12. Lysosome 13. Centriole 14. Cell membrane. image: wikipedia

It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. The inner, granular mass is called the endoplasm and the outer, clear and glassy layer is called the cell cortex or the ectoplasm.

Movement of calcium ions in and out of the cytoplasm is thought to be a signalling activity for metabolic processes. 

In plants, movements of the cytoplasm around vacuoles are known as cytoplasmic streaming.